By Corinne P. Sze, Ph.D. for the Fairview Cemetary Preservation Association
During the Spanish Colonial and Mexican periods (1598-1846), Roman Catholicism was the only non-Indian religion openly practiced in New Mexico. Early religious burials were within churches or in their immediate vicinity. Later graveyards were established at a farther distance. After New Mexico became part of the United States, a more diverse population began to settle in Santa Fe, including Protestant missionaries, although Protestant churches were not permanently established until after the Civil War.(6) Jews had arrived early on the New Mexico frontier but did not organize a congregation in Santa Fe until the 1950s.(7)
In the early American period and into the twentieth century, benevolent, fraternal organizations united people of various national, ethnic, and religious origins, providing many of the rituals of organized religion in Santa Fe, as elsewhere on the frontier. The Masons and the Odd Fellows established their first New Mexico lodges at Santa Fe in the early 1850s. An outside observer noted in the next decade that the Spanish population called the Masonic Lodge "the American church."(8)
The Masons and Odd Fellows established Santa Fe's first non-Catholic burial ground in 1853 north of the former Spanish presidio grounds. Sentiment for establishing a community cemetery was expressed as early as 1856. However, the Masons and Odd Fellows, who accommodated everyone, provided the only cemetery for non-Catholic burials until the founding of Fairview and a new Odd Fellows Cemetery some thirty years later.(9)
The 1853 Masonic and Odd Fellows graveyard was a rectangle surrounded by a high adobe wall. The single entrance facing the city was intended for foot traffic through a folding doorway, which was later replaced by the iron gate now at Fairview. The old burial ground fell into disuse once the new cemeteries were functioning. In 1895, the removal of burials began to the Santa Fe National Cemetery, Fairview, or the new Odd Fellows Cemetery. The process was declared over at the beginning of 1903 but was apparently never completed, as bodies have been unearthed in later excavations at the site.(10)
The new Odd Fellows Cemetery was established at about the same time as Fairview and adjacent to it. It is much smaller than Fairview, containing today about seventy stones. It served a narrower population, is no longer in use, and has no extant records.
Two Catholic burial grounds remain of those established in Santa Fe's long history: the Guadalupe Church cemetery and Rosario. Both contain descendents of New Mexico's Spanish colonizers and others who made significant contributions to the history of Santa Fe and New Mexico. The Guadalupe Cemetery was consecrated in 1886 on rural land not far from Fairview and ceased functioning in the mid-1940s. It is now surrounded and partially built upon by business development near St. Francis Drive. (11)
Rosario Cemetery, established in 1868 and still in use, is Santa Fe's oldest cemetery. Records of early burials are incomplete (Church records did not specify cemeteries) and tombstones have been removed. The National Cemetery, Santa Fe's largest historic burial ground, is located north of Rosario. Founded in 1870, this federal installation is eligible to veterans, their spouses, and minor children from throughout the country and contains primarily orderly rows of identical, small, white tablets.
HISTORY OF FAIRVIEW
The land occupied by the cemetery was purchased in 1884 and 1901 for that purpose in two major tracts bordered on the south by an old road and on the north by the Arroyo San Antonio. Historically, this area south of the Santa Fe River was cultivated using water provided by a network of acequias. The original cemetery tract consisted of about four acres sold to the Fairview Cemetery Company by one of its incorporators. On the east was the home of truck gardener George Cann. The Woman's Board of Trade made the second purchase, which included the Cann property and adjacent lands combined earlier by Boston capitalists.
Development of the agricultural lands south of the river had begun with the establishment of the rail yards northeast of the future site of Fairview in 1880. Five years later, a territorial penitentiary was completed nearby. Soon a substantial brick-making enterprise began at the penitentiary, using inmate labor and supplying the material for the late nineteenth and early twentieth century public and private popularity of brick in Santa Fe. In 1886, a new double-domed capitol was built east of the railroad depot. The incipient School for the Deaf moved to a site north of the Arroyo San Antonio in 1891.
Fairview Cemetery began as a private endeavor when James T. Newhall and Preston H. Kuhn, two young men of modest means, saw opportunity in the fast-developing southwest side of town. In 1880 Kuhn was a thirty-two-year-old government clerk. He and his recent wife, Facunda Barela (aged twenty-four), were living in her mother's home. Newhall, born in Kingston, Jamaica, was twenty-nine in 1880 and a store clerk. Three years earlier he had married Teresa Proudfit (1856-1935), the daughter of the former New Mexico surveyor general.(12)
For most of their careers Newhall and Kuhn would be employed by the government, but in the heady years after the railroad arrived in Santa Fe, albeit via a spur line, they launched this venture. As declared in the opening entry of the Fairview Cemetery Company minutes, "The necessity of having and maintaining a proper place for burial of the dead in the town of Santa Fe, N. M., being apparent, Mr. James T. Newhall and Mr. Preston H. Kuhn made an estimate of the amount that would be required for the purpose . . ."(13)
Newhall and Kuhn proceeded to sell fifty shares at $25 each to raise the $1,250 they reckoned sufficient to establish a cemetery. They had accurately identified a need, and the shares sold quickly to a roster of thirty-one subscribers drawn from the capital's prominent Protestant and Jewish citizens, including the editor of the leading territorial newspaper, lawyers, bankers, merchants, a physician, baker, plumber, florist, and barber-undertaker.(14)
The Certificate of Incorporation dated May 7, 1884, established the Fairview Cemetery Company under the 1867 law permitting incorporation for mining, manufacturing, and other industrial pursuits. The object of the company was "to purchase, acquire and maintain a suitable parcel or parcels of land for the burial of the dead; to divide . . . and sell . . . the same . . ."(15) A five-member board of directors was chosen for the first year.
The board met the following day and elected newspaperman Maximilian Frost president; Preston Kuhn, secretary-treasurer; and James Newhall, superintendent. As defined in the by-laws adopted that day, Kuhn would keep track of the company's finances, and Newhall had charge of the property and physical operations of the business. The by-laws also anticipated dividends to be paid out of surplus profits. Kuhn reported that $357.50 was on hand from subscribers. A sum of $300 was authorized for a suitable piece of ground. Newhall was directed to procure posts and lumber for a fence and to buy other materials and do other work, as he deemed necessary.
Less than a week later, the cemetery company paid the $300 to secretary-treasurer Kuhn for 4.3 acres of open land; about a third of an 11.53-acre tract he had purchased just three weeks earlier for $500. Thus Kuhn netted an easy profit of about $26 per acre sold. The sellers were the heirs of Quinto Martin, including his widow Josefita Maes de Martin.(16) In 1846, Quinto Martin had paid Juaquin T. Martin $40 for the same land, described as terra labrada (cultivated land) north of an old wood road.(17)
Mismanagement is the most charitable interpretation of what followed. A year after its formation, the Fairview Cemetery Company had spent $1,576; $316 more than had been taken in through subscriptions; and had not sold a single cemetery lot or recorded a burial. The year's expenses had included fencing, surveying, grading and cleaning the land, and moving an acequia. Most was spent on the fence; an astonishing $1,110.08, including posts, lumber, paint, nails, hinges, and locks.(18)
Since the lumber was freighted in, this was among the most costly ways to build a fence. It is not known where or if the fence was constructed. (Ten years later there was a wire fence along Cerrillos Road. Wooden picket fences separated Fairview from the Odd Fellows Cemetery on the west and the Cann property.) The board of directors resolved to repay Kuhn money he had advanced out of the first receipts for lots sold or interments made. To that end, the superintendent was directed to set the price of lots and burials at his discretion. (19)
The yearly stockholder meetings mandated in the by-laws were held only in 1885 and 1887. Just the five board members were present for the first annual meeting; the rest attended by proxy. The five reelected themselves directors and immediately held a board meeting. Newhall reported that the cemetery was in good condition and recommended no further expense in improving the property.(20)
After no activity for two years, the board met briefly a few days before the stockholders' meeting of 1887 and ordered the superintendent to have the cemetery plotted. The financial report indicated a $7.50 expense for repairing the gate and no income. Two stockholders had selected lots in exchange for their shares.(21)
The company was silent again until 1890 when a new group took control. An annual meeting was called in the office of Solicitor General Edward L. Bartlett with ten stockholders present, including Frost and Newhall. Preston Kuhn was absent. Five new directors were elected from Santa Fe's leading citizens; attorney E. L. Bartlett, physician John Symington, banker Rufus Palen, and businessmen Sol Spiegelberg and J. H. Gerdes. An examination of the books found a discrepancy in the reports and vouchers furnished. Newhall was ordered to turn in deeds, keys, and other properties of the cemetery though he continued as a member of the company. Kuhn never appeared again, although he was sometimes present by proxy.(22)
For the next eight years, Sol Spiegelberg headed the board, which held regular meetings and made some effort to move the project forward. Among the first acts of the new directors was to engage an engineer who replatted the cemetery creating the lettered sections, walks, and center circle that exist today (Map 1). They also set prices, sold lots, made a few ad hoc rules, and tried to control unauthorized burials. Water was brought to the property from the main in front of the neighboring Cann house.(23)
Charity was not their intention, however. For a fee, Bartlett collected a debt owed the company and settled the county tax bill after suit was brought against the company. The secretary was paid a salary. When Mrs. Bartlett, the president of the Woman's Board of Trade, first asked for a plot of ground in the cemetery for the burial of the poor as part of the WBT's charitable work, the request was denied saying that the county authorities would furnish a suitable place for the poor. A year later, when Cora Bartlett personally addressed the board, the request was granted with a donation of six lots.(24)
The directors sought to improve record keeping as well as the appearance of the cemetery. They planted some trees and enlisted the cooperation of the WBT in view of the donated lots. They established that owners could have their lots cared for by the company for five dollars per year and hired a caretaker to do so and also water the trees.(25)
Still the cemetery was not a success and certainly never realized a profit. The directors barely took in enough funds to keep it going, much less make improvements or pay dividends. By 1898 the company was again mired in debt, primarily for water and back taxes. The secretary had to donate three months salary toward redemption of the property through a tax sale.
Rescue was in sight when Ida Rivenburg, president of the WBT, made a proposal. "Realizing under what difficulties the officers of Fairview Cemetery have labored for many years," the WBT would expend $500 over two years to improve and beautify the grounds in return for a donation of the company's stock to the woman's organization.(26)
Given the range of their activities, the women of the WBT were well qualified to take over the cemetery, appropriately a benevolent enterprise requiring business as well as aesthetic acumen. Four lot owners, including leading citizens Abraham Staab and Levi Hughes, expressed their confidence by offering to donate a total of $300 toward building a lodge and other improvements if the cemetery were turned over to the WBT.(27)
Solicitor General Bartlett, vice president of the Cemetery Company, objected that the WBT could not legally hold stock in another corporation.(28) Six months later, the WBT tried again, offering to take full control of the cemetery and all its resources for one year in order to beautify and improve it. The proposal was accepted on condition that the WBT pay the cemetery company secretary's salary. Half a year into the arrangement, the cemetery company directors, upon receiving a report and financial statement, congratulated the women on their work.(29)
The Woman's Board of Trade and Library Association took complete control of Fairview without actually owning it; a responsibility the WBT Cemetery Committee would shoulder for the next thirty years. The Fairview Cemetery Company directors continued to sign deeds and hold yearly stockholder meetings to approve and compliment the excellent work of the WBT. By 1903 the cemetery had been transformed from a "barren waste, adding to the horrors of death" to a place that was "clean, fresh and green with walks carefully laid out . . . and trees, flowers and shrubbery flourishing. The trees included box elders, European lindens, American elms, and horse chestnuts. Many were donated or sold for reduced cost by local nurserymen. The same year Ida Rivenburg, WBT Cemetery Committee secretary-treasurer, was elected to the Cemetery Company board; by 1908 the two groups had effectively merged since the five directors of the company were WBT women.(30) Still the WBT did not own the entire cemetery until 1930 at the time of the WBT and Woman's Club merger.
Four women had formed the first WBT Cemetery Committee: Abraham Staab's daughter Bertha Staab was elected chairman; Esther Bradley Thomas, secretary; Ellen S. Palen, treasurer; and Ida Bacon Rivenburg, member.(31) Meeting once a month after the regular meeting of the WBT, the committee efficiently turned the cemetery into a self-supporting enterprise. Unique among WBT projects, the cemetery received no funds from the WBT treasury. All expenses were met through lot sales, special assessments, and contributions from lot owners.
The first committee began by developing a work plan. In short order they purchased tools and hired a custodian who could store them at his house next to the cemetery. When his work proved unsatisfactory, they did not hesitate to fire him and hire another. They set up a weekly rotation of supervising the work at the cemetery with each women reporting to her successor at the end of her week.(32)
The women negotiated all expenses and whenever possible secured donated labor and materials. In less than two months, they had fixed the fence with donated pickets and freight costs, secured the volunteer services of a surveyor to straighten lines and define the boundaries of lots and roads, and repaired the water system, which they soon extended. Mrs. Rivenburg was authorized to purchase and have set out twelve shade trees at twenty-five cents each. Access to water meant that owners could landscape their plots. By the fall of 1899, the women could report significant progress, all the while spending less than they took in.(33)
A significant sum was still owed for delinquent water bills. The women established a cemetery fund and sent out a plea to lot owners for contributions since only one lot had been sold in over a year. Later they threatened to shut off water to the lots of those who had not contributed toward the support of the cemetery. They also worked to negotiate down the debt. The water company manager offered to accept $80 as complete payment of $100 owed and a rate of $40 per month for the current season. After a visit from Mrs. Palen, he agreed to cancel the entire debt and accept a water rate of $10 per month.(34)
With some effort, the cemetery committee completed a list of lots sold and unsold and established the practice of meticulous record keeping. They took on the problem of illegal interments and secured free convict labor from the nearby penitentiary to move bodies buried under the roads. Undertaker Thomas Gable supervised the operation gratis. Soon the women were lobbying for city ordinances to regulate physicians' certificates, undertakers and burial permits.(35)
By the end of their first year, the cemetery committee began to consider adding land to the cemetery and providing a home for a sexton. The old George Cann property next door contained a small adobe house. This tract and another farther east were then known as Lots 40 and 50 of the extensive Santa Fe acreage owned by the Houghton family of Boston.
Earlier, members of the Sanchez family had sold these tracts separately. In January 1873, George Cann paid $45 to Jesus Maria Lovato and Maria Ygnacia Sanchez for the property that became Lot 40. (In the 1850s, Antonio Maria Sanches (sic) had owned this property.) Later in 1873, Jesus Montoya de Johnson (Mrs. James L. Johnson) paid $75 to Francisco Sanches for the tract on the east (Lot 50), bounded on the north and east by the bend of the Arroyo San Antonio.(36)
In 1881, Santa Fe Trail merchant James L. Johnson lost much of his property to creditors.(37) As a consequence of a judgment against him in favor of the National Bank of North America, in August 1887 Bostonian George Morse paid $340 at a sheriff's auction for six large tracts of Johnson's land, including Lot 50. That December, Morse conferred power of attorney to "sell or give away" all his real estate in Santa Fe County. In the same month, George Cann sold his property (Lot 40) to William S. Houghton of Boston for an undisclosed sum. Three months later, Houghton bought the Morse acreage east of the former Cann property for $606. In 1891, all of Houghton's Santa Fe property, including Lots 40 and 50, was quitclaimed to his son Clement S. Houghton.(38)
In 1901, the Cemetery Committee took the initiative offering Houghton $175 for the Cann house and a portion of Lot 40 or $350 for all of Lots 40 and 50. Houghton eventually accepted the $350 for both tracts. The women quickly raised the purchase price from a long list of donors. The largest contributions came from Thomas B. Catron, Abraham Staab, and Levi Hughes, who each contributed $25. Most were in the $5 category. The WBT now owned a considerable piece of property in its own name. A few months later they recouped most of the cost by selling Lot 50 to the neighboring deaf school for $300. The school purchased a nearly three-acre wedge of Lot 40 in 1917 and another adjacent strip in the 1960s.(39)
Ellen Palen chaired the Cemetery Committee for twenty-five years, from 1902 until her death in 1927. She completed the organization of the enterprise into a fully self-supporting entity. In 1925 the entire cemetery was resurveyed and Sections E and F added. The first set of rules was published the following year.(40) Palen dealt with many of the same problems that occupy today's owners: managing finances, securing caretakers, paying for water, maintaining records, supervising burials, planting and maintaining landscaping in conditions of periodic drought, filling sunken graves, straightening stones, and dealing with excavating prairie dogs. At Palen's death, Fairview was singled out among her many contributions: "Her care of the cemetery was most faithful and devoted, and as a result Fairview is the most beautiful "God's Acre" in New Mexico."(41)
Ruth Seligman and May Spitz took over next as leaders of the Cemetery Committee. Seligman was the sister-in-law of Arthur Seligman. The daughter of pioneer jeweler Salamon Spitz, May Spitz was educated at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, a pioneering institution in the education of independent-minded women. Her sister Florence was also active in the WBT and had twice served as president.
In keeping with broader trends in cemetery use and design, Fairview became a place to be visited and appreciated for the natural beauty of its trees, flowering plants, and expanses of lawn. As the rules evolved, emphasis was placed on uncluttered dignity without ostentation. Fences without prior approval had been outlawed in 1890, although the following year, William Slaughter was granted permission to place an iron fence around his lot (since removed). No less an eminence than Attorney General Bartlett consented to remove his iron fence in 1903. In 1922 the rule was strengthened to forbid fences, railings, or copings of any kind around lots or graves. Only low corner stones were allowed. Eight years later it was decreed that there would be no more mausoleums, vaults, or superstructures.(42)
Finances remained the biggest problem for the committee since lot sales could never cover expenses. Over the years different funding schemes were tried including voluntary contributions to the cemetery as a whole and annual or perpetual care fees paid by lot owners. Voluntary contributions were uneven and annual fees hard to collect. Water became ever more costly and there was the 'poor' or 'free' area (Section I) to cover. After the Woman's Club and Library Association took charge in 1930, the Cemetery Committee established a perpetual-care trust fund and decreed that henceforth no lots would be sold without perpetual care, although previously established annual care was not abolished until 1961. A percentage of all money received from lot sales went into the trust fund, which grew to $100,000 and sufficed for almost fifty years.(43) Fairview remained Santa Fe's principal non-sectarian place of burial into the mid-twentieth century, when a new cemetery called Memorial Gardens was established south of town. Attitudes toward death had changed, and with them cemetery needs.
WOMAN'S BOARD OF TRADE AND LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF SANTA FE
In 1891 Mary Harroun, wife of physician William Harroun, organized some of Santa Fe's leading citizens into a limited-membership, literary society called the Fifteen Club, which continues today as New Mexico's oldest woman's organization. A year later, many of the same individuals formed the Woman's Board of Trade.(44)
The history of this remarkable organization began when Cora Bartlett (Mrs. Edward L.) and Claribel Gable, both wives of politically well-connected men, attended an entertainment at the School for the Deaf. Noticing that the school was poorly equipped, the women concluded that Santa Fe needed an organization dedicated solely to the betterment of the community. A few days later they met with a small group of like-minded women to organize "a society which, in an absolutely unselfish way should work for the civic good; which should know no creed, no politics, no social classes, and whose mission was to bring 'Peace on earth, good will to men.'"(45)
With Cora Bartlett as president, the Benevolent Association immediately began to help a destitute family. Three weeks later the name was changed to the Santa Fe Woman's Board of Trade and Library Association to convey the breadth and seriousness of their mission, described by Mrs. Gable's daughter as attending "to business for the common good in a business-like way."46) The name echoes that of the Santa Fe Board of Trade, a group men dedicated to the betterment of the city.(47) Mrs. Bartlett's husband, Attorney General Edward L. Bartlett, reputedly reacted to the women's determination with a quip: "The first thing you know you women will be wanting to built a railroad." To which his wife replied, "Yes, we will, if necessary."(48)
True to its founding inspiration, the WBT's first project beyond individual charity was an 'entertainment' to raise money to buy books for the deaf school. The 225 volumes they provided formed the nucleus of the school's library. The women also quickly set about solving the 'beggar problem' with a system of script used to secure food and other needs. The Visiting and Relief Committee called on the sick and brought food and fuel to the poor. Their charity was neither passive nor distant; nor was it 'promiscuous.' They didn't hesitate to cut off those deemed unworthy or those unwilling to help themselves. The Intelligence Committee brought together workers with prospective employers and strove to create markets for locally made items. The Reception Committee welcomed newcomers and helped the stranded to move on, providing for half-price fares negotiated with the railroad.(49)
As their first civic endeavor, they took on 'modernizing' the Santa Fe Plaza, overgrown with alfalfa (an earlier 'improvement' over bare dirt) and enclosed within a dilapidated picket fence with turnstiles to keep out errant animals. The women removed horse troughs, planted bluegrass, and installed a decorative stone fountain. They replaced the fence with neat stone curbing and old wooden benches with new iron seats. When Cora Bartlett died in 1903, it was said that "Santa Fe's beautiful plaza" would be a "lasting monument" to her "public spirit, her untiring energy, her great executive ability and her self-sacrificing character."(50) Despite much city growth, the plaza today remains Santa Fe's civic and emotional center.
The women were soon ready to open a free public reading room with 400 volumes. By 1907 they had raised the funds to construct a library building on land north of the Palace of the Governors donated by the territorial legislature. They would own and manage the public library for more than fifty years, providing most of the necessary funds though an annual plaza fete, charity balls, benefit performances, and catered banquets, including gubernatorial inaugural suppers. In 1895, the WBT was deeded twelve lots in Fairview and the women took responsibility for pauper burials. Four years later, they took on a third major responsibility, the entire managing of Fairview Cemetery.
The WBT became a model organization receiving national attention, its achievements praised in the Los Angeles Sunday Times:
Of all the extraordinary organizations sheltered beneath the welkin of the North American continent of ours one of the most unique may be found in the Territory of New Mexico, if we are to judge by effectiveness as well as singularity in name . . . The Woman's Board of Trade in Santa Fe is just what its name implies. It . . . exercises many of the same prerogratives (sic) of similar organizations made up of the masculine gender. Moreover, Santa Fe, a town of 11,000 population, and the capital of the Territory, has no other like body, and it is left to the women to bear the standard of better municipality.(51) In the first decades of the twentieth century, a second charitable organization called the Santa Fe Woman's Club grew out of the Mother's Club, formed to work for child welfare and public school improvement. The early Woman's Club initiated one of New Mexico's first public health projects and worked to establish the State Department of Public Health. The Woman's Club and the Woman's Board of Trade and Library Association merged in 1930 and incorporated as the Santa Fe Woman's Club and Library Association. Fairview Cemetery then became the responsibility of the Woman's Club Cemetery Committee.
Until the New Deal programs of the 1930s, the WBT remained a primary source of help to the needy. Eventually all of their major functions were assumed by government. In 1962 the city of Santa Fe took control of the library, purchasing the land and library building. The Woman's Club donated the book collection appraised at $100,000.(52) The plaza, too, had become a city responsibility, and in 1978 the club gave Fairview Cemetery, the last of its major community responsibilities, to Santa Fe County.
Fairview's three mausoleums and one sarcophagus comprise the only group of such monuments in Santa Fe.(53) All were erected by men who played leading roles in the nineteenth and early twentieth century history of Santa Fe and New Mexico as politicians, attorneys, and businessmen.
Thomas B. Catron (1840-1921) erected the oldest and most impressive of the mausoleums after the death of his wife Julia Anna Walz Catron (1857-1909). Catron himself was placed there in 1921. According to Fairview records, others placed in the mausoleum are a Catron baby; the ashes of the Catrons' oldest son, John Walz Catron (1878-1944); and Isabel Justine Christensen Catron (ca. 1880-1961), the wife of Catron's second son, Charles C. Catron. Later she was cremated and the ashes scattered. When the author and community activist Mary Austin died in 1934, her body was temporarily placed in the Catron Mausoleum. She was later cremated and the ashes interred on Mount Picacho.(54)
Thomas Catron was the most powerful lawyer and politician of New Mexico's territorial period. He helped organize the New Mexico Republican Party in 1867 and led the so-called Santa Fe Ring that dominated the business and political life of the territory. He was a major player in all the significant legal, political, and business activities of the period. Heavily involved in land grant matters, at one time he was said to be the largest landowner in the United States. His law library, considered to be the finest in the Southwest, was used extensively by other New Mexico attorneys and was eventually acquired by California's Huntington Library. He also amassed a vast personal library of other books and historic manuscripts. Most of what he did not contribute to the Historical Society of New Mexico is in the University of New Mexico collections. Two of Catron's sons joined him in the practice of law, and today the Catron firm includes the fourth generation of the family.(55)
Raised in Minnesota, Julia Walz was teaching school in southern New Mexico when she met U.S. Attorney Tom Catron. Before their marriage she returned to Oberlin College for a third year. Admired for her beauty as well as her intellect, she was a charming hostess and the Catron home a center of Santa Feï¿½s social and cultural life. A lifetime student, traveler, and humanitarian, she worked tirelessly in projects for community improvement though eschewing positions of leadership. From the early 1890s until her death, Julia Catron spent much time away from Santa Fe first seeing to the education of the four Catron sons in the East and in Europe and then seeking improvement in her own health.(56)
John Walz Catron received an early education from tutors in Santa Fe and in Europe. He attended Phillips Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, spent a year at Annapolis, another at West Point, and the next year dropped out of Yale. After a stint in the New Mexico territorial volunteers, he attended the Colorado School of Mines and eventually graduated from Columbia University. For many years he ran the Orchard Camp in Santa Fe.(57) Born in Mankato, Minnesota, Isabel Justine Christensen married John's brother, Charles C. Catron, in 1907. Charles joined his father in the practice of law, served in the state legislature, and was assistant district attorney and a State Supreme Court justice.
Few unaltered tangible resources remain to represent the life of Thomas B. Catron and the prominent role of the Catron family in New Mexico history; Catron Street in Santa Fe and New Mexico's Catron County are named for him. The two-story, brick, Catron mansion was considered the finest in the territory when it was built in 1883 but was demolished and replaced with an apartment complex in the mid twentieth century. Catron's 1891 Italianate, business block stands at the northwest corner of the Santa Fe Plaza, its ground floor facade completely remodeled to conform to Santa Fe style in the 1960s.(58)
The Renehan Mausoleum is dated 1928, the year Alois B. Renehan died. The mausoleum also contains the remains of Renehan's wife, Marietta Phelps Lord Renehan (1876-1964); her son, Neil Phelps Renehan (ne' Lord; d. 1946); and Marietta's sister, Elizabeth Greenleaf Phelps (d. 1939). For about a year after his death in 1933, the remains of Governor Arthur Seligman lay in the Renehan mausoleum.(59)
The grandson of an Irish immigrant, A. B. Renehan was born in Virginia in 1869 but was soon taken to New York City where his father was associate editor of the New York Tribune under Horace Greeley. The family later moved to Washington, D.C. where A. B. Renehan attended Catholic schools. Having given up study for the priesthood, he took a job as a bookkeeper and stenographer. For a time he was employed as French translator, did newspaper work, and engaged in the real estate and insurance businesses.(60)
Renehan began studying law at Georgetown. He moved to New Mexico in 1892 where he continued his law studies under Thomas Catron. He joined the office of Edward L. Bartlett for two years and then entered private practice, specializing in criminal defense and land issues. He also tried civil cases such as divorce. He represented Espanola landowners in a suit over former Indian lands and was among those who drew up the infamous Bursum Bill, which would have confirmed the land and water titles of settlers on Pueblo lands.(61)
Renehan rose in the ranks of the Democratic Party. He was secretary of the New Mexico Democratic Central Committee and represented the territory as a delegate to two Democratic National Conventions. As a member of the State House of Representatives, he served as head of the finance committee and a member of other major committees. He chaired the Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce and served the Santa Fe community on the City Council and the School Board.
In addition to law, Renehan was involved again in real estate and insurance, as well as banking and mining. He organized the New Mexico Realty Syndicate in 1900 and the following year took control of the Capital City Bank of Santa Fe. In 1914 he organized the Inter-State Casualty & Guaranty Insurance Company of Albuquerque.
Renehan was known for his intense work habits, his gifts as an orator and raconteur, and his fund of jokes. He was also a published poet; his Songs from the Black Mesa appeared in 1900. A Republican since 1910, he was party leader in the State Senate in the winter of 1927 when he suffered a nervous breakdown, said to result from years of overwork. Rest in Florida was prescribed. He died the following spring in Dayton, Ohio, on route back to Santa Fe.(62)
Renehan married twice in Santa Fe. His first wife was Zephora Gold of a pioneer merchant family. After they divorced, he married Marietta Phelps Lord whom he had recently represented in a bitter divorce from dentist Charles Lord. Born in Sackets Harbor, New York, Marietta had settled in Santa Fe in 1901 with Dr. Lord, accompanied by her sister, Elizabeth Greenleaf Phelps.
Marietta Renehan served as president of the WBT and vice chair of the Cemetery Committee and was active in the DAR.(63) Her sister Elizabeth Phelps taught in the Santa Fe city schools and later worked for the State Land Office for twenty years. The Renehan home on Palace Avenue, called The Willows, was a social center in its time. Both the home and the three-story, brick, Renehan building on the plaza have been significantly altered.
The Hanna mausoleum is dated 1929, the year Belle Hall Hanna died. It was presumably erected by her sons, businessman Thomas Hanna (1881-1951) and lawyer Richard H. Hanna, on the lot she had purchased in 1908. According to the Fairview Cemetery records, the mausoleum contains the remains of Belle Hanna, Thomas Hanna and his wife, Willetta R. Hanna (c. 1885-1937), as well as Belle's husband, Isaac Bird Hanna (1857-1905), who is also commemorated by an earlier headstone nearby.
The Hannas were from Kankakee, Illinois. Isaac Bird Hanna was in the insurance business before coming west. In 1900 he accepted the post of superintendent of the US Forest Reserve in New Mexico and Arizona. Later he was supervisor of the Pecos Forest Reserve. Belle Hanna was an officer in the WBT. The Hanna sons became prominent New Mexico citizens, Thomas as a merchant and Richard as a lawyer and Supreme Court justice.(64)
Thomas Hanna purchased the general mercantile store of John Pflueger in Lamy, NM, the small community that developed where the Santa Fe spur met the main ATSF line. Hanna also had a charcoal business. Active in politics, he was Lamy's longest serving postmaster (1912-1933), as well as a member of the Lamy Precinct School Board and the Santa Fe County Road Board.(65) No other resource in Santa Fe represents the lives and contributions of the Hanna family.
The Seligman sarcophagus contains the remains of Governor Arthur Seligman (1871-1933), his wife Franc Seligman (1867-1937) and son Otis P. Seligman (1898-1943). Businessman and politician Arthur Seligman was born in Santa Fe, the son of Bernard Seligman, a German-born, wholesale and retail merchant. In 1849, Bernard's older brother Sigmund had established one of the earliest freighting and mercantile businesses in Santa Fe. Bernard joined his brother to form Seligman Brothers, a firm that freighted huge quantities of goods over the Santa Fe Trail and continued to prosper after the coming of the railroad.(66)
After a primary education in the Santa Fe schools, Arthur Seligman attended high school in Philadelphia. At the age of fourteen he entered Swarthmore College and was thought to be the school's youngest student up to that time. He left in his junior year after the death of his sister, who was also at Swarthmore. After graduating from Pierce's Business College in Philadelphia, he joined Seligman Brothers as a bookkeeper. He became president upon his father's death in 1903.(67)
Like his father, Arthur Seligman rose in the ranks of Democratic politics serving in local and statewide office. The longtime chairman of the Santa Fe County Central Committee, he was a member of the Territorial Central Committee and the Democratic National Committee. He represented New Mexico as a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions of 1916 and 1920. Four years later, he was a Democratic contender for a United States Senate nomination.(68) In 1931 he was elected governor and died in office two years later.
Franc E. Harris of Cleveland, Ohio, married Arthur Seligman in 1886. Their only child, Otis Perry Seligman, is buried with them [Note from Arthur George Seligman/Scott, son of Otis Perry Seligman and grandson of Governor Arthur Seligman, whose great aunt, Ruth Seligman, headed the cemetery Committee in 1927: "The section concerning my father is essentially correct. However, he was not the only child, as stated, of Governor and Frankie Seligman. They had an adopted daughter, Ritchie Seligman March. This may and should have been verified, by referring to the September 26 (?), 1933 obituary published in The Santa Fe New Mexican and headlined 'New Mexico Mourns' which states, in part: 'In 1896, he married Frankie Lacker Harris of Cleveland, Ohio, who survives him. The surviving children are Otis Perry Seligman and Ritchie S. March.' In addition to my grandparents; my father, Otis Perry Seligman; my mother, Doris Gardiner Seligman; my aunt, Ritchie March; and Cousin George March are buried on the Seligman plot."]. After service as an infantry second lieutenant in the First World War, Otis returned to Santa Fe to work in the National Bank of Santa Fe where his father was president. He was convicted of embezzlement while cashier of the bank and was in federal prison when his father died suddenly of a heart attack. No other resource represents the Seligman family in Santa Fe. Their Palace Avenue home is gone and their business locations remodeled beyond recognition.
STAAB PLOT AND MONUMENT
The Staab plot and monument commemorates the family of Abraham Staab (1839-1913), who is buried there with his wife Julie Schuster Staab (1844-1896) and five of their children: Paul Staab (1872-1915), Arthur A. Staab (1873-1952), Julius Staab (1874-1913), Edward Staab (1875-1968), and baby Henriette (d. 1883).
Born in Germany, Abraham Staab came to the United States at the age of fifteen. After working in Virginia, for a few years, he came to Santa Fe to work for his cousins, the Spiegelberg brothers, who were already well established in the Santa Fe trade. In 1859 Abraham and his older brother Zadok founded their own small retail business.(69)
In the 1860s, the firm, Zadok Staab and Brother, became the largest wholesale and merchandising establishment in the Southwest. Zadok settled in New York to do the buying for the firm, while Abraham ran the business in Santa Fe. The Staabs were especially successful at winning lucrative government contracts that supplied the system of forts in the Southwest. They acted as bankers before and after the establishment of formal banks, keeping the cash of friends and customers in the company safe and taking property as security for large wholesale transactions. They also invested heavily in real estate and were involved in other business ventures such as Santa Fe's gas lighting plant.(70)
The Staab firm continued to prosper in the new economic climate that followed the railroad. As reported in a lengthy Santa Fe New Mexican article in March 1882, the firm claimed to have done nearly a million dollars in business the previous year, serving a territory that included New Mexico, southern Colorado, eastern Arizona, and west Texas, with considerable business in Mexico. The Staabs were said to have a branch store in San Francisco, as well as a factory in New York manufacturing clothing and one in Boston producing footwear. After Zadok's death in 1884, Abraham bought out his share and ran the business until his own death in 1913.(71)
Active in Republican politics, Abraham Staab was associated with the Santa Fe Ring. He chaired the Santa Fe County Commission and was credited with playing a major part in keeping the territorial capital in Santa Fe.(72)
In 1865 Staab married Julie Schuster, who was also born in Germany. She died in 1896 after a protracted illness, which may have included depression.(73) Of the four Staab sons buried in the Staab plot, three attended Swarthmore College (Arthur, Julius, and Edward), as did their sister Bertha. Bertha was active on the early WBT Cemetery Committee until she married and moved to Albuquerque. Julius and Edward also received A.B. degrees from Harvard University. Julius went on to earn a Harvard law degree, and Edward studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. At the time of Abraham Staab's death in 1913, Arthur was residing in Oklahoma, Julius was a lawyer and probate judge in Albuquerque, Edward a physician in New York City, and Paul (said to be of unsound mind) lived at home.(74)
No other resource in Santa Fe remains sufficiently unaltered to represent the Staab family. Their business locations have been remodeled beyond recognition. Although the three-story, mansard Staab house is one of the few Palace Avenue mansions standing in any form, its top floor was lost to fire many years ago and the remainder disguised in adobe colored stucco and embedded in La Posada de Santa Fe Resort and Spa.
The wrought-iron gate, donated by the Masons and Odd Fellows from their abandoned cemetery, was installed on the recently purchased George Cann property in place of wooden gates in 1901.(75) At the same time a high fence of wooden pickets that had separated the Cann property from the cemetery was removed and the materials used to build a fence along the entire length of the enlarged property along Cerrillos Road, replacing barbwire.
WROUGHT IRON GATE
The wrought iron fence along the front of the cemetery was built after 1902 and before 1915. In 1904 the fence was moved in about four feet when Cerrillos Road was widened into a 'boulevard.' By 1915 the wooden fence had been replaced with ornamental iron on a base of brick and capstones, materials manufactured by inmates of the New Mexico Territorial Penitentiary.(76) When Cerrillos Road was widened in 1917, the fence was moved again.
In the mid 1990s, the FCPA renovated the fence. The base was in poor condition with about three hundred of the capstones and many bricks missing, as were some rods and finials. About half the number of missing capstones were found in the cemetery. Others were donated to the project from elsewhere. The old capstones were reinstalled under the sections of the fence near the main entrance. Missing rods were manufactured and the same finials were still available from a fence company. A new gate, designed after the Masonic and Odd Fellows gate, was installed with a generous inset for cars turning off busy Cerrillos Road;space that had been lost through the repeated widening of Cerrillos Road.
The Caretaker's House was added to the cemetery property in 1901 when the WBT purchased the old Cann place from Boston capitalists. On the property were a four-room adobe house, a small stable, and seedling fruit trees.(77) An English-born carpenter, George Cann lived in Santa Fe before 1860 and married a local woman, Francisca Padilla. He established a commercial garden on the large piece arable land, which he bought from the Sanchez family in 1873 and which later, abutted Fairview. He advertised plants and trees for sale as well as vegetable, flower, herb, alfalfa, clover, and grass seeds by packets, ounces, or pounds. After selling his home and land to William Houghton of Boston, he purchased another tract where he intended to establish a "fruit, flower and truck garden."(78)
Although the Cemetery Committee considered building a caretaker's residence, ultimately they retained the Cann house, which they called 'he lodge.' By the end of 1902, the outside of the building had been plastered and an 'unsightly' portal replaced with a 'neat little porch.' The first caretaker/occupant was a penitentiary guard, Mr. Aldereta, who lived there rent and expense free. In return, he supervised the convicts who worked on the grounds, took care of the tools, and kept the cemetery key. After prison labor proved unsatisfactory, a succession of hired caretakers lived in the house, receiving the cost of rent and water as part of their compensation. Their work was often disappointing and required the women's constant supervision.(79)
The situation changed when the newly formed Woman's Club and Library Association took over and hired Ben Volk, who proved to be very capable. From about 1931 to 1944, Volk lived in the lodge with his family taking care of the grounds and opening and closing graves.
Heavy rainstorms in the spring of 1948 prompted a rethinking of the house, beginning with the question of whether a caretaker was necessary at all. After this was answered in the affirmative, the Woman's Club considered whether to build a new lodge. A pro bono physical inspection by the architect John Gaw Meem determined that the foundation and walls were in good condition although the house needed reroofing, replastering, and improved plumbing. Meem also drew up a plan for a new five-room house that could be built for around $11,000. With $9,000 in the treasury the board decided to do just the necessary repairs and updating.(80)
(Birth and death dates in parentheses indicate burial at Fairview; q.v. refers to listing in the appendix.)
FAIRVIEW CEMETERY COMPANY AND WBT FOUNDERS
Many of the individuals important to the history of Fairview eventually became its tenants, including founder James Newhall (1851-1927), many of the original subscribers, and early leaders of the Fairview Cemetery Company, such as Max Frost (q.v.), Edward Bartlett (q.v.), Rufus J. Palen (q.v.), and Thomas P. Gable (q.v.).
Most of the leaders in the WBT, the Santa Fe Woman's Club, and the respective Cemetery Committees are buried at Fairview as well, including WBT founders Cora Bartlett (q.v.), Claribel Gable (q.v.), and Ellen Palen (q.v.). As the second president of the organization, Ida Rivenburg (q.v.) was instrumental in the WBT's taking of responsibility for Fairview and was an active member of the Cemetery Committee until her untimely death. Nearly a third of the thirty-three women honored in 1895 as founders of the WBT are at Fairview.(81) Of twenty-three WBT presidents between 1892 and 1931 seventeen are at Fairview. Ruth Stevenson Seligman (1873-1968) was the last president of the WBT. Myrtle Gresham Andrews (later Gere, 1879-1970), a past president of both the WBT and the Woman's Club, was the first president of the newly constituted Woman's Club and Library Association.(82) Esther Bradley Thomas (1844-1921), Ellen Palen, Ruth Seligman, Clara Walter (q.v.), and May Spitz (1885-1974) chaired the Cemetery Committee.
Mary Jenne Warner (d. 1911) was a charter member of Fifteen Club and a founder of the WBT. Born in Vermont, she married lawyer Milton J. Warner (d. 1881) and came to Santa Fe with him in 1881 only to be widowed shortly after. She taught music and worked for the betterment of Santa Fe. She is said to have written at least five hundred letters to individuals and organizations throughout the US asking for books for the nascent public library. At her death, she was said to be intellectually abreast of the times . . . and possessed of a phenomenal memory. She was considered one of the best-informed women of SF.(83)
Of Ellen Palen it was said that she was "either a founding member or active participant of virtually every important womanï's group, benevolent enterprise, or social event that occurred in the ancient city . . ." The daughter of an Episcopalian bishop, she came to Santa Fe in 1878 after her marriage to Rufus Palen (q.v.), who first came to New Mexico when his father, Joseph G. Palen (1811-1875), was appointed Chief Justice of the Territorial Supreme Court. She was especially devoted to the public library. She also founded the Holy Faith Guild over which she presided for decades. Still, the cemetery was said to be her "favorite work."(84)
The early death of the Palens' only child, daughter Caryl Palen Moulton (1879-1912), was a blow from which neither fully recovered. The Holy Faith parish hall, designed by John Gaw Meem and built in 1927 by Antonio Windsor (1852-1937) with funds donated by Ellen Palen, is named as a memorial to her daughter. The Palen home was on East Palace Avenue next to Holy Faith. Built in 1882, the same year as Holy Faith, it was destroyed by fire in 1940.(85)
PIONEER AND OTHER NOTABLE WOMEN
The oldest stone at Fairview commemorates teacher and Baptist missionary Catharine Gorman (1815-1862), the wife of the Reverend Samuel Gorman (Photo 15). The Gormans came to New Mexico in 1852 and spent seven years at the Laguna Pueblo before coming to Santa Fe. Catharine died three years later and was buried in the Masonic and Odd Fellows Cemetery. She was moved to Fairview about 1900.(86)
Selina Craft Arny (ca. 1815-1890) was another pioneer woman. Descended from a Hessian who was General George Washington's trumpeter, she married Christian Church minister and reformer William Frederick Milton Arny in 1836 in her native Virginia. President Abraham Lincoln, an old acquaintance, appointed Arny New Mexico territorial secretary and he served as acting governor for more than a year. William was buried in the Masonic and Odd Fellows cemetery in 1881. Selina could not be buried beside him, as was her wish, because the old cemetery was condemned by the time she died. She had lived an impoverished widowhood and was placed in an unmarked, donated grave at the back of Fairview, which has since been marked by the Stephen Watts Kearny Chapter of the DAR.(87)
Milliner Anna A. Mugler (1857-1927) was a pioneer businesswoman. She came to Santa Fe from Kansas with her widowed mother and siblings for health reasons. Her millinery and notions store was located in Thomas Catron's plaza building, before it burned in 1888 and after it was rebuilt in 1891. Inherited by a cousin, the shop continued on the plaza until 1947. Leah Harvey (1851-1913) was the first woman in Santa Fe to own an insurance business and the sole support of four children after she was widowed.
Notable women of the twentieth century include writers Ina Sizer Cassidy (1869-1965), Myrtle Andrews Gere (1879-1970), Alice Corbin Henderson (1881-1949), and Ruth Laughlin Barker Alexander (1889-1962). Julia Brown Asplund (q.v.) was probably the first professionally trained librarian in New Mexico when she took a job at the University of New Mexico library in Albuquerque in 1903. After marrying Rupert Asplund (1875-1952) and moving to Santa Fe, she turned her considerable energy and talent to voluntary public service. As a "one-woman lobby for libraries in New Mexico for over fifty years," she was largely responsible for the creation of much of New Mexico's local and statewide library system. She was also a leader in the movement for woman's suffrage and the first female regent of the University of New Mexico.(88)
LAWYERS, POLITICIANS, AND JURISTS
Fairview is the final resting place of many New Mexico leaders including three governors: William T. Thornton (q.v.), 1893-1897; Miguel Antonio Otero (q.v.), 1897-1906; Arthur Seligman (q.v.), 1931-1933, and acting governor Dr. Benjamin Morris Thomas (q.v.), 1889. President Grover Cleveland appointed Thornton, a Democrat known for fearless integrity, to curb the violent activities of political gangs. A descendent of one of New Mexico's oldest Spanish families, Otero was the first native-born governor in the American period and the longest serving territorial governor.(89)
Santa Fe mayors at Fairview include William T. Thornton (q.v.), 1891-1892; Ralph E. Twitchell (q.v.), 1893-1894; Charles F. Easley (q.v.), 1895-1896; Amado Chaves (q.v.), 1901-1902; Thomas B. Catron (q.v.), 1906-1908; Arthur Seligman (q.v.), 1910-1912; William G. Sargent (q.v.), 1914-1918, James C. McConvery (1873-1942), 1928-1932; Charles B. Barker (1878-1969), 1934-1936; Frank Andrews (q.v.), 1936-1937. When Frank Andrews died suddenly in office, osteopath Charles A. Wheelon (1869-1950) as City Council president temporary acted as mayor. At the time of his death, Andrews was said to be one of the biggest property owners in Santa Fe.(90)
The graves of several men appointed to the New Mexico Territorial Supreme Court are found at Fairview, including Joseph G. Palen, Napoleon B. Laughlin (q.v.), Frank W. Parker (q.v.), William H. Pope (q.v.), and Clarence J. Roberts (q.v.).(91) Roberts and Parker were two of three justices elected to the first Supreme Court after statehood in 1912, serving until 1921 and 1932 respectively. Roberts was Chief Justice from 1912 to 1916 and 1921 and Parker from 1919 to 1920 and 1922 to 1928. Other State Supreme Court Justices buried at Fairview include John C. Watson (1878-1970) and Daniel K. Sadler (1882-1960). Both served as Chief Justice: Watson in 1933-1935 and Sadler in 1935-1936, 1943-1945, 1946, and 1953.(92)
Judge Frank W. Parker gained state and national renown from his participation in two high profile, southern New Mexico trials. Parker came to New Mexico in 1881 shortly after graduating from the University of Michigan Law School. He practiced in Kingston, then a booming mining camp in Sierra County, New Mexico, where he met a young lawyer named Albert Bacon Fall, who was prospecting for silver and gold.(93)
As territorial district court judge, Parker presided over the 1899 trial of ranchers Oliver Lee and Jim Gilliland for the presumed murder of lawyer and Republican leader Colonel Albert J. Fountain and his young son, who had disappeared three years earlier. Lee and Gilliland were indicted at the instigation of Doï¿½a Ana County Sheriff Pat Garrett, the legendary killer of Billy the Kid. Lee's attorney was Albert Fall, who contrived to have a new county created so that the trial would not take place in Dona Ana. The support of Governor Miguel A. Otero (q.v.) was enlisted by naming the county for him.(94)
In the end, the trial took place at Hillsboro, another mining boomtown and the Sierra County seat. The trial pitted Democratic leader Fall as lead defense attorney against his political archrival, Republican kingpin Thomas B. Catron (q.v.), who was enlisted from Santa Fe to aid the district attorney. The trial was a national sensation. At the behest of the Associated Press and the Hearst newspapers, Western Union extended the telegraph line to Hillsboro and provided two operators to relay correspondents' reports. The trial ended in acquittal and the case was never solved.(95)
Ten years later Judge Parker presided over the 1909 trial of Wayne Brazil for the murder of Pat Garrett. Albert Fall, again the defense attorney, secured an acquittal.(96) Fall later changed parties and served as Warren G. Harding's Secretary of the Interior, the first New Mexican to serve in a presidential cabinet. Convicted of bribery in the oil lease scandals known as Tea Pot Dome, he served three years in the New Mexico Territorial Penitentiary not far from Fairview, resting place of Judge Parker, Thomas Catron and Governor Otero.
Under territorial status, New Mexico's one federal representative was the congressional delegate, the only official elected by the territory as a whole. The U.S. president appointed other territorial officials, including the governor, territorial secretary (the second highest executive office), and Supreme Court justices. Two territorial congressional delegates are buried at Fairview, Antonio Joseph (q.v.), who served for ten years in 1885-1895 and Thomas Catron, 1895-1897. Catron was also elected one of New Mexico's first United States senators in 1912 after the granting of statehood. The other was Albert B. Fall.
Three Catron law partners are at Fairview: Governor William Thornton, 1877-1883; Frank W. Clancy (1852-1928), 1882-1890; and Judge Reed Holloman (1871-1953), 1914-1919.(97) Other influential judges and/or attorneys at Fairview include Harry S. Clancy (1861-1918), the brother of Frank Clancy; Amado Chaves; Jacob H. Crist (q.v.); Charles F. Easley, who practiced with his son Ralph Easley; and Judge A. J. Abbott (q.v.)(98); railroad lawyer Ralph Emerson Twitchell (q.v.); A. B. Renehan (q.v.); Harry J. Hughes (1906-1978); Harry S. Bowman (b. 1880), lawyer for the Santa Fe Woman's Club; J. O. Seth (1883-1963) and his son Oliver Seth (1915-1996); and Harry Long Bigbee (1915-1999), son of rancher Dade Bigbee (1881-1954).
Long-time Catron enemy, Democrat J. A Crist, as district attorney in the Governor Thornton administration, led the 1895 prosecution of the Borrego brothers and others for the political murder of Sheriff Silvestre Gallegos. Represented by T. B. Catron, the defendants were convicted and hanged in Santa Fe. At the conclusion of the trial, Crist pursued an unsuccessful disbarment effort against Catron.(99)
SANTA FE RING
With his law-school classmate and first law partner, Stephen Benton Elkins, Republican boss Thomas Catron is credited with creating the group of politicians, lawyers, and businessmen called by their enemies, the Santa Fe Ring.(100) In the decades after the Civil War, this loose coalition was involved in all the major economic enterprises of the period including banking, mining, and especially land. Most were Republicans, the dominant party of the period. Among those associated with the ring at Fairview are Territorial Supreme Court Chief Justice Joseph G. Palen, merchant Abraham Staab (q.v.), and surveyor William W. Griffin (q.v.). Lawyer and governor, William Thornton was one of the few Democrats associated with the ring. Griffin was the government surveyor of many Spanish and Mexican land grant claims, including the rejected City of Santa Fe Grant and the vast Maxwell Land Grant.
With capital netted from the sale of the Maxwell Grant, Lucien B. Maxwell chartered the First National Bank of Santa Fe in 1870. At the time the bank was the only such institution in New Mexico or Arizona and is today the oldest bank in the Southwest. William Griffin was the bank's first cashier and later president, 1884-1890. Including Griffin, five of the nine presidents serving between 1870 and 1952 are at Fairview: Rufus J. Palen, 1894-1916, Levi A. Hughes (q.v.) 1916-1925, Arthur Seligman (q.v.) 1925-1933, and Paul A. F. Walter (1873-1966), 1933-1949.(101)
In addition to Griffin, other surveyors include Surveyor General Charles F. Easley (q.v.), Santa Fe County surveyors William White (1863-1939) and John L. Zimmerman, (1833-1898), Walter G. Turley (1881-1966), Robert C. Harvey (1888-1964), and David Thornburg (1895-1974). The surviving half of Zimmerman's 1901 'Map of the City of Santa Fe' produced while he was Santa Fe City engineer is a unique resource. He also produced a complete Santa Fe County map in 1905. Thornburg surveyed Fairview in 1925 for the WBT. Walter Turley was educated at New Mexico State University and received the first New Mexico engineering license. He probably surveyed more land in Santa Fe County than any other individual. As a civil engineer for the New Mexico State Highway Department and in private practice, Robert Harvey built highways, dams, municipal buildings, industrial plants and other similar projects.
PIONEER MERCHANTS AND OTHER NOTABLE BUSINESSPEOPLE
Luis Gold (1820-1880)(Photo 16), Joseph Hersch (1822-1901), and Abraham Staab (q.v.) are pioneer Jewish merchants buried at Fairview. A native of Poland, Gold came to Santa Fe alone. His wife Rachel refused to join him in a part of the world where the foods required by her religious beliefs were not available. His three sons also became Santa Fe businessmen, prominent in the curio business.(102)
Also a native of Poland, Hersch, came to Santa Fe in 1846. Known as El Polaco (Santa Fe's Polaco Street is named for him), he is said to have started the first steam flourmill west of the Mississippi and was a major producer of flour for the U.S. Army in 1850s. He also erected a distillery in Santa Fe and was reputed to be the wealthiest man in New Mexico. After he died, his wife Rosalia Herschberg Hersch (1845-1925) managed the family business until her own demise.(103)
Less well known is merchant Sigmund Wedeles (1836-1909) who came to the United States from Bavaria. He made a reputed fortune of some $175,000 in the wholesale grocery business in Santa Fe, lost it through "unfortunate ventures" in Chicago, and returned to Santa Fe to recoup. His daughter Emma Wedeles (d. 1961) married Taos merchant Gerson Gusdorf (1869-1961).(104)
Other general merchants include John Dendahl (1852-1934) and John Pfleuger (1865-1951). Frank Andrews (q.v.), Charles A. Bishop (1858-1914), and the brothers Hiram B. Cartwright (1852-1920) and Samuel G. Cartwright (1869-1923) were grocers. C. W. Dudrow (1849-1911) and Gerhard D. Koch (d. 1896) sold lumber. Enos Andrews (q.v.), Salamon Spitz (1852-1927), and Harry C. Yontz (1866-1936) were jewelers. John G. Schumann (1834-1917) sold shoes. Englishman Arthur Boyle (1840-1910) developed Clarendon Gardens, a nursery and orchard that he claimed were the oldest commercial gardens in the state. Boyle provided fresh flowers, bouquets, and floral designs year round and fresh fruits in season.(105)
Salamon Spitz was a teenager when he emigrated from his native Breslau, the capital of the German province of Silesia. He made his way west from New York City to Cleveland, then the Black Hills, and reached Santa Fe in 1880. A watchmaker and jeweler, he began business in New Mexico selling watches door to door in northern part of the territory. He went on to become a prominent businessman with a successful jewelry business on the plaza. He helped found the Santa Fe Board of Trade and was a director of the First National Bank of Santa Fe for twenty-five years.(106)
Carl Allan Bishop (1885-1968), grocer Charles Bishop's son, joined one of the oldest and best-known general insurance and real estate agencies in the state in 1906. He later became president of the company and handled a large portion of the transfers of commercial and residential properties in Santa Fe.(107)
Johanna Uhlfelder Blatt (1877-1965) came alone to the United States from her native Coblenz in what is now Germany. In Arkansas she married Emil Uhlfelder, with whom she had a daughter Pauline. The Uhlfelders came to Santa Fe in 1912 and opened the White House in the ground floor of the Catron Block. There they sold Santa Fe's first ready-to-wear, woman's fashions. After Emil's death in 1916, Johanna married Morris Blatt (1884-1944), also born in Germany. The Blatts eventually purchased the Catron Block, renaming it the Blatt Building.
In 1924 Johanna's daughter, Pauline Uhlfelder Petchesky Pollack (1903-2003), married Barney Petchesky (1899-1959), who was twenty-two when he came to Santa Fe and opened a shoe store. Petchesky was instrumental in building the Santa Fe Jewish Temple and Community Center (now Temple Beth Shalom) and served as cantor and rabbi. Pauline, also a founding member of the temple, participated in many civic organizations including the Woman's Club and Library Association, the Santa Fe Opera Guild, the St. Vincent Hospital Auxiliary, and the Santa Fe Boys' and Girls' Club.(108)
Railroad accessibility brought tourist-oriented businesses in the late nineteenth century. Pioneer Luis Gold's sons Moses Aaron (1845-1884), Abraham (1848-1903), and Jacob sold Indian and Mexican curios, pottery, baskets, and blankets. After the turn of the twentieth century, J. S. Candelario (1864-1938), having learned the business from Jake Gold, became perhaps Santa Fe's most colorful and enduring curio dealer. Candelario's grandson, John S. Candelario (1916-1993) continued the business. A man of many talents, John Candelario was also television and cinema writer and an award-winning photographer and filmmaker.(109) In 1915, Chicago lawyer Julius Gans (1879-1953) abandoned his practice to open the Southwest Arts and Crafts Company, which manufactured and sold rugs and jewelry.(110)
C. G. Kaadt (q.v.) was a photographer who also had a curio emporium. He supplied many of the photographs sold by other dealers and for a time was the official photographer for the Santa Fe Central Railroad. His photographs were used to advertise the region served by the line throughout the country. Jewelers Andrews and Yontz were also photographers.(111)
Several leaders in education of state and local significance and many valued teachers are at Fairview. Amado Chaves was the first New Mexico Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1891-1897, 1904-1905. James A. Wood (q.v.) effectively created the Santa Fe public school system after he becoming superintendent in 1899. Through his efforts the federal government donated a portion of the abandoned Fort Marcy Reservation to the City of Santa Fe for school purposes and the first Santa Fe High School was built. Rupert Franz Asplund (1875-1952) was an educator from Illinois. In the West for his health, he taught classical languages at the University of New Mexico in 1902-1909, edited the New Mexico Journal of Education in 1907-1920, and was director of the New Mexico Taxpayers Association from 1918 to 1952. Corniel E. Hammond (1893-1985) taught music at Santa Fe High School for over forty years.(112)
In 1885, Lars and Belle Larson (1858-1892) founded the first institution in New Mexico for the education of deaf children. This became New Mexico's first public school when the State of New Mexico took it over in 1887. In the fall of 1891, the Larsons moved the school to a building on property northeast of Fairview. Larson's second wife, Cora Gunn Larson (1859-1905), whom he married in 1893 after Belle's death, was equally involved in the institution. Of these women, school historian Marian Meyer says, "They were more than just his wives. They were educators, matrons of the school, substitute mothers, cooks, housekeepers, laundresses and very likely co-founders of the New Mexico School for the Deaf."(113)
Maud Bogue (1877-1892), a deaf orphan and the first pupil enrolled in the Larsons' original private school 1885, was buried at Fairview in an unmarked grave. Joseph Bumgardner (1874-1921) was the first teacher of vocational education at NMSD where a school building is named for him. His stone at Fairview bears the tribute, "Master Teacher of the Deaf."
CARPENTERS AND BUILDERS
Several nineteenth-century carpenters, builders, and others in the building trades are buried at Fairview, including Henry G. MacKenzie (1819-1901), his son William McKenzie (1849-1900), and son-in-law roofer Alexander Irvine (q.v.); James Nichols (1829-1885); Philip Hesch (1832-1914) and his son Edward Hesch (1867-1934); Antonio Windsor (1852-1937); and August Reingardt (unmarked, c.1853-1937).
Born in the north of England, Henry MacKenzie was a builder in Peoria, Illinois, before settling in Santa Fe in the early 1880s. Scottish-born tinsmith Alexander Irvine installed New Mexico's first metal roof in 1872. William McKenzie installed Santa Fe's early water system.(114)
James Nichols, an English architect in the West for his health, is credited with building some of Santa Fe's most impressive three-story, mansard mansions, including the homes of Thomas B. Catron (demolished) and Abraham Staab (remodeled and incorporated into a resort). Nichols's daughter married Amado Chaves (q.v.).(115)
The elder Hesch was a Canadian-born master carpenter of German extraction. The mansard-roofed home he built in 1888 is one of the few remaining examples in Santa Fe of this railroad-era, European-influenced style.(116) Edward Hesch was a lumber manufacturer and a builder/contractor. He supervised the construction of the 1900 New Mexico capitol.(117) Antonio Windsor was born in Australia to Norwegian parents and immigrated to the United States in 1865. He advertised as a contractor and architect, offering plans and specifications with 'close figuring.' He built many major buildings in Santa Fe, including the NMSD redbrick school building (1904), Santa Fe's first high school building (1905), the WBT Public Library (1906-7), the Scottish Rite Temple (1911-2), and Palen Hall at Holy Faith Episcopal Church (1927).(118)
Ranching families at Fairview include the MacGillivrays and the Bigbees. Both developed large spreads south of Santa Fe. In 1908, Dade Bigbee (1881-1954) came with his parents and nine siblings from Missouri to homestead at Encino, New Mexico. The family's combined claims eventually became one of the largest cattle ranches in the state covering more than 128,000 acres.(119) Allan and Angus were two of five MacGillivray brothers who emigrated from Scotland to become major sheep ranchers in the Estancia Valley. Angus MacGillivray (1866-1917) married Julia Ethel Easley (1883-1915), the daughter of Charles F. Easley (q.v.), in 1908. Allan MacGillivray (1883-1922), the youngest of the brothers and the last to arrive, joined his brother in 1900. Ten years later he married Della Comer (1887-1973), whose family had also homesteaded in the Estancia Valley.(120)
The Santa Fe New Mexican claims to be the oldest daily paper west of Topeka, south of Denver, and east of San Francisco.(121) The most influential territorial and early statehood newspaper, it was a tireless booster for the political persuasion of its owners (usually Republican) and for the economic development of the state and its capital city. New Mexican owners buried at Fairview include Thomas Sheridan Tucker (1837-1886), Maximilian Frost, William Thornton, and Paul A. F. Walter. James A. Spradling (d. 1889) was the manager and editor of the Albuquerque Daily Journal.(122)
Tucker, Frost, and Walter also edited the New Mexican. Frost, as secretary of the New Mexico Bureau of Immigration, compiled and edited many books and pamphlets boosting New Mexico, which were printed by his New Mexico Printing Company, including several editions of the comprehensive New Mexico Its Resources, Climate, and Geography. Twentieth-century versions were completed with Paul Walter. Other New Mexican editors at Fairview include George H. Cross (1856-1903), under the Democratic ownership of Governor Thornton, and E. Dana Johnson (1879-1937), who edited the paper from 1913 to 1937. Johnson, a West Virginian has been rated "the most brilliant working newspaperman in the history of New Mexico journalism."(123)
The Marshes were a family of newspapermen and writers from New York State. Orphaned as an infant, Jerome Luther Marsh (1815-1892) apprenticed with his uncle's newspaper at age seven. He completed his education as a printer with the original Harper Brothers in New York City and worked with Horace Greeley at the Albany Evening Journal. After ill health drew him westward, J. L. Marsh began newspapers in Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Continued health problems forced him to sell the Wisconsin paper he had founded with his son George P. Marsh (1849-1900) and move to Colorado where father and son began the Durango Morning Herald, which they published for eight years before moving to Santa Fe and buying an orchard and nursery. J. L. Marshs' daughter, Laura Brooks Marsh (1851-1898), is Santa Fe's first-known, published woman author with award-winning stories and at least one book, entitled Little Queen of Tragedy (1895).(124)
Adolph Fisher, (1867-1941), John N. Zook (1876-1950), Martin Gardesky (1889-1940), and Morris Hyman Yashvin (1888-1991) were plaza pharmacists. Among Fairview dentists, who typically had offices over plaza pharmacies, are E. W. L'Engle (d. 1892), Enos Andrews (q.v.), Daniel W. Manley (1858-1902), and C. O. Harrison (1863-1935). Andrews was said to have shipped the first dental chair to Santa Fe by ox team over the Santa Fe Trail in about 1860. Also a jeweler and photographer, he operated a circulating library in Santa Fe from 1861-1881.(125)
Pioneer physicians include William Smith Harroun (1836-1920); Madison Milligan (1847-1925); D. C. Van Mater (1852-1895); Muhanna E. Baraket (1854-1935); Ernest C. Lee (1865-1947), who practiced in Espanola, New Mexico, north of Santa Fe; and David C. Knapp (1868-1946). Physicians entirely of the twentieth century include Frank E. Mera (1879-1970) and brother Harry P. Mera (1875-1971); Wallace H. Livingston (1885-1940); Raymond Lobeck Young (1914-1961); and Charles A. Wheelon (1869-1950), who brought osteopathic medicine to Santa Fe in 1903.(126)
In 1906 Frank and Harry Mera bought Santa Fe's failing Sunmount Tent City, located southeast of the city below the foothill known as Monte Sol (Sun Mountain). Harry Mera soon left to practice in Kansas, returning to Santa Fe permanently in 1922. While serving as county health officer, he began a systematic survey of Santa Fe County archaeological sites and assembling a collection of pottery sherds. He was also a founder and longtime president of the Indian Arts Fund. In 1931 he left medicine to become curator of archaeology at the newly formed Laboratory of Anthropology where he broadened his archaeological survey and amassed the Mera Sherd Collection, the invaluable basis for later ceramic studies. He published numerous articles and monographs on New Mexico Indian arts as well.(127) In 1923 Frank Mera designed the New Mexico state flag with its yellow ground and red Zia Pueblo sun symbol. His winning contest entry was hand sewn by his wife Reba W. Mera (1880-1969) and survived fierce opposition for the supporters of the design by Ralph Twitchell (q.v.).(128)
Frank Mera turned a nearly defunct tent city into a sanatorium of national repute. He imparted to his patients his deep interest in the traditional cultures, art, and architecture of the northern New Mexico. Many remained to shape the city in the twentieth century as founders of Santa Feï¿½s art colony and leaders in the movement to restore Santa Fe's historic appearance, including architect John Gaw Meem, the single individual most responsible for the twentieth-century remaking of Santa Fe.
THE ARTS COMMUNITY
In 1916, tuberculosis brought poet Alice Corbin (1881-1949) from Chicago for treatment at Sunmount. While she convalesced, her husband, the artist William Penhallow Henderson (1877-1943) and young daughter Alice (Oliver Henderson Evans Rossin Colquitt, 1907-1988) moved into a small adobe north of Sunmount on what was then called Telephone Road.
Already a recognized poet, Corbin had helped Harriet Monroe found Poetry in 1912, a magazine highly influential in introducing the New Poetry of such artists as Vachel Lindsay, Carl Sandburg, Amy Lowell, Ezra Pound, Witter Bynner, and Arthur Davison Ficke. Today Poetry is the oldest continuously published periodical devoted to poetry in the United States. William Henderson was a native of Massachusetts and received his training in art there and in Europe. A highly respected painter, he had most recently taught at the Chicago Institute of Fine Arts.
After Alice Corbin's recovery, the Hendersons remained in Santa Fe. Their presence brought other writers and visual artists and their home, on the road they convinced the city to rename Camino del Monte Sol, became a center of the developing art colony of which they were guiding spirits. The road, called simply 'the Camino,' became synonymous with the colony.
Frank Applegate (1881-1931) was forty years old and a teacher of ceramics when he moved to Santa Fe in 1921 and bought property on the Camino opposite the Henderson home. Applegate had become interested in New Mexico when his friend, the painter Gerald Cassidy (1869-1934) sent him samples of native clay used by Indian potters. In Santa Fe, Applegate began to paint modernist landscapes and Indian subjects in oil and watercolor. He also did woodblock printing and created ceramic sculptures.(129)
Applegate was a founder of the Indian Arts Fund and the Spanish Colonial Arts Society. These groups promoted the preservation of Indian or Spanish culture and traditional arts and each amassed major collections of historic examples that form the basis of several museum collections in Santa Fe. Applegate, writer Mary Austin, and photographer Ansel Adams worked on a comprehensive book on Spanish Colonial art, which remained unpublished after Applegate's sudden death.
Other significant figures in the early twentieth-century development of Santa Fe who are at Fairview include artists, scholars, and wealthy patrons of the arts. Painter, illustrator, and muralist Gerald Cassidy (1869-1934) and his wife, writer Ina Sizer Cassidy (1869-1965), were among the founders of the art colony. Educated at the Art Institute of Cincinnati, the National Academy of Design, and the Art Students League, Cassidy was one of the best commercial lithographers in New York before tuberculosis led him to seek a southwestern climate in 1898. In Denver he married Ina Sizer, a young widow. They settled in Santa Fe in 1912 where their Canyon Road home was another center for the arts community. Known for portraits especially of Navajo Indians, Cassidy's work is in museums and private collections throughout the world.(130)
The daughter of pioneer Colorado homesteaders, Perlina 'Ina' Bernam Sizer Cassidy wrote poetry and nonfiction. Her unique contribution to the development of Santa Fe was support for the arts and cultural preservation through articles, editorials, and personal encouragement. For decades she wrote a column for New Mexico Magazine on New Mexico artists and their work, which brought attention to the colony and remains a valuable resource. She served as the first New Mexico director of the Federal Writers Project.(131)
Painter and photographer Carlos Vierra (1876-1937) is thought to be the first artist to settle permanently in Santa Fe. A Californian of Portuguese decent, he had studied art in New York City and been a successful cartoonist. Ill health brought him to Santa Fe in 1904, where he opened a photographic studio on the plaza. Later he would pioneer the use of aerial photography of prehistoric sites as a research tool in the United States. His association with the Museum of New Mexico led to an interest in the traditional architecture of northern New Mexico.
Though none were trained architects, archaeologist Sylvanus Morley and artists Carlos Vierra, Frank Applegate, and William Penhallow Henderson were major contributors to Santa Fe's early twentieth-century revival movement in Spanish-Pueblo architecture. Morley was a strong advocate for the remaking of Santa Fe's historic core in historically appropriate "Santa Fe style." He assisted in the influential 1909-1913 remodeling of the Palace of the Governors and organized the New-Old Santa Fe Exhibition held there in 1912 to introduce and promote the style to the public through models, photographs, and drawings. His own remodeling of an old adobe house provided an early example emphasizing the long, low lines of the Spanish-Colonial precedent. His detailed article in the journal Old Santa Fe established the basis for the new mode.(132)
Like Morley, Vierra contributed to the remodeling of the Palace. His series of photographs and paintings of Spanish-Colonial mission churches were a valuable resource for precedents and he published articles in support of the style.(133) The home Vierra designed in 1918 emphasized Pueblo Indian influence with its setback second story, in contrast to the long and low Spanish profile of the Palace of the Governors and the Sylvanus Morley House.(134)
Applegate built or remodeled several adobe houses in the Camino del Monte Sol area. In the early 1920s, he encouraged five young Santa Fe painters, who exhibited together as Los Cinco Pintores; to hand build adobe homes on lots he sold them on the Camino, an effort that was highly influential in developing the Camino as an art center and in encouraging newcomers to build in adobe.(135)
Henderson's Pueblo Spanish Building Company was responsible for the design and building of significant private and commercial projects including the White estate (1924-1929, now the School of American Research), the Santa Fe Railway Ticket Office on the plaza (1926), the remodeling of Sena Plaza (1927), and the House of Religion (1935-1938, now the Wheelwright Museum). His furniture designs, based on Spanish-Colonial prototypes and hand-wrought by native artisans, were sold locally and throughout the country.(136)
Sara Woolfolk McComb (1868-1963) was a tireless advocate for American Indian rights. A Kentucky native, she came to Santa Fe in 1921 with her husband, David J. McComb (1864-1938). Meetings called at her home to fight the infamous Bursum Bill, which threatened Indian land ownership, led to the formation of the New Mexico (later Southwestern) Association on Indian Affairs. As chairman of the association's Nursing Service Committee she initiated the placement of resident nurses at pueblos and on reservations. She raised funds for the nursing program with the yearly Poets' Roundup at her home featuring members of Santa Fe's art colony reading their poetry. Among those reading at the 1930 gathering were Fairview tenants, Ina Sizer Cassidy, E. Dana Johnson, and Alice Corbin.(137)
Wesley Bradfield (q.v.) worked for the Museum of New Mexico. Trained as a forester, he eventually went into museum work. He became expert in reconstructing pottery from sherds, devised a method of photographing the interior curvature of a pottery bowl without distortion, and ended his career as curator at the Museum of New Mexico. A major work on the archaeology of the Mimbres Valley in New Mexico was completed after his death.(138)
A native Santa Fean, Ruth Laughlin Barker Alexander (1889-1962) was a journalist and writer who published nonfiction and historical fiction. She was born to Judge Laughlin Barker (q.v.) and Kate Barker (q.v.) in the now demolished family home near the old state capitol.(139) Among the first graduates of Santa Fe High School, she went on to Colorado College and Columbia University School of Journalism. She also participated in archaeological work in Guatemala, Mexico, and New Mexico and was an expert in Indian prehistory.(140)
Writer Myrtle (Gresham) Andrews Gere (1879-1970) came with her family to Cerrillos, New Mexico, as a child in 1886. She was the manager and cook at the first Hilton hostelry when A. H. Hilton, the father of Conrad Hilton, made a hotel of the family home in San Antonio, New Mexico. She married Frank Andrews (q.v.), the bookkeeper for the A. H. Hilton Mercantile Company. Widowed in 1937, she married Raymond Gere in 1944.(141)
Significant trained architects at Fairview include Trent Thomas (1888-1951), Gordon Frink Street (1893-1943), and Willard Carl Kruger (1910-1984). Thomas came to Santa Fe in 1918 to work with the Rapp firm on the new La Fonda, a hotel that was an important early precedent of the Spanish-Pueblo Revival. In the 1930s he worked for the State Park Commission, the National Park Service, and the State Highway Department and with John Gaw Meem on the New Mexico Historic American Buildings Survey.
Gordon Street joined the Meem firm in 1927 and opened his own firm five years later. His Territorial Revival designs for new construction and the remodeling of both public and private buildings helped establish that mode in Santa Fe canon of historic design. His 1937 New Mexico Supreme Court building is an outstanding example.(142)
After World War II, the firm of W. C. Kruger extended the use of the Territorial Revival with the group of massive new or remodeled state government buildings. These form the capital complex south of the Santa Fe River and include the remodeled old state capitol and a new circular capitol. Kruger had designed many New Deal sponsored public buildings, including four New Mexico county courthouses. His firm developed Los Alamos for the Manhattan Project, creating a small town north of Santa Fe where secret nuclear research had designed the world's first atomic bomb.(143)
ARCHAEOLOGISTS AND HISTORIANS
Sylvanus Griswold Morley was a Harvard-trained, Meso-American archaeologist and specialist in Mayan hieroglyphics of national significance and the author of numerous, scholarly books and articles. His career began and ended at Santa Fe's School of American Archaeology (later School of American Research). Under the auspices of the school and subsequently the Carnegie Institution in Washington, DC, he conducted fieldwork in Mexico and Central America. Exploring by mule, canoe, and foot he discovered many new sites, more than doubling the known number of Mayan hieroglyphic inscriptions.(144)
Eminent historians at Fairview include Ralph Emerson Twitchell (q.v.) and Lansing Bloom (1880-1946). Twitchell was for many years the New Mexico solicitor for the ATSF and was also active in water and conservation issues. He was an authority on Southwestern history as well, and his five-volume Leading Facts of New Mexican History (1912, 1917) and history of Santa Fe entitled Old Santa Fe (1925) have not been equaled in scope and depth. Other major works include the two-volume Spanish Archives of New Mexico (1914) and the four-hundred-page History of the Military Occupation of New Mexico, 1846-1851 (1909). Twitchell also published numerous monographs on historical subjects and was the founding editor of a historical quarterly called Old Santa Fe.(145)
Lansing Bloom was a Presbyterian missionary turned history professor specializing in Franciscan history in the Spanish borderlands. During World War I, he joined the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico as head of the War History Service. In 1929 he joined the history faculty of the University of New Mexico. His extensive research in archives of Mexico, Spain, and Italy yielded copies of major documents and publication of seminal work in Spanish-American history. He was also the longtime editor of the New Mexico Historical Review. His assistant in these endeavors was his wife Maude McFee Bloom (1880-1973), daughter of Judge John R. McFee, a fervent supporter of the museum and school.(146)
Fairview was known as the 'graveyard of the Episcopal clergy.' The Reverend J. L. Gay (1809-1904), who served from 1897-1899, is thought to be the earliest-born person at Fairview. The Reverend Sanderson H. S. Ilderton officiated for only three months before succumbing to tuberculosis in 1892. The Reverend Hale Townsend died five years later after only a year and a half at Holy Faith. Bishop Charles James Kinsolving III (1904-1984) was rector from 1936 to 1953 and Bishop of the Diocese from 1953 to 1971.(147) Other clergymen buried at Fairview include Presbyterian minister William Hayes Moore (1861-1904) and the Rev. John A. Whitlock (1849-1918). The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of a clergyman's wife, Catharine Gorman, and the second oldest that of the infant son of Presbyterian minister David McFarland, who in 1867 established what is now the oldest Protestant congregation in New Mexico.
FAIRVIEW AFTER THE PERIOD OF SIGNIFICANCE(148)
Santa Fe experienced dramatic growth to the south and west in the decades that followed World War II, and Cerrillos Road became a busy commercial strip. Inevitably, Fairview was no longer a quiet spot on a dusty road at the outskirts of town. The State Penitentiary moved out of town and a State Highway Department building occupied the field across the road from Fairview, where once there were penitentiary gardens. A new commercial cemetery competed for non-Catholic burials. Memorial Gardens, founded south of town in the 1950s, reflected changed attitudes toward cemeteries, which ceased to be a popular destination.
The Woman's Club evolved, as its core responsibilities "the plaza, the Public Library, and the care of poor" became government functions. In July 1978, Fairview ceased to be a private cemetery. To the disappointment of many old Santa Fe families, Santa Fe County agreed to take over the cemetery as a place to bury indigents and to use the trust fund income to maintain it. The county stopped selling lots, but private burials were permitted on pre-owned lots. At a rate of about one or two burials a month, the county provided poor families with burial plots and paid for the opening and closing of graves. Inevitably, Fairview became known as the "indigent cemetery."
Without a group of individuals devoted to its care, the cemetery began to deteriorate. Without lot sales, the trust fund ceased to grow, and its returns were soon outstripped by escalating costs, especially of water. Despite the best efforts of the county, within three years, trees and shrubs were dying and the lawns browned.(149)
Local historian and writer Marian Meyer, concerned by the condition of the cemetery, sounded the alarm in an April 1981 Community Forum column in the Santa Fe New Mexican. A fourth-generation New Mexican (Her great grandparents homesteaded near Moriarty in 1908), Meyer is a community leader in the tradition of the WBT. She is a member of the Fifteen Club and, as founding president of the Santa Fe Junior Woman's Club, worked closely with members of the Woman's Club. The author of several books and many articles devoted to Santa Fe and New Mexico history, Meyer has spent much time at Fairview researching early settlers.
Response to the column was immediate and she received offers of financial support from families and individuals who shared her concern. A public meeting held in August at the Santa Fe County Courthouse brought together Fairview descendents, historians, and other concerned citizens to consider options for the cemetery. Dr. Myra Ellen Jenkins, former New Mexico State Historian, detailed the history and significance of the cemetery. The Santa Fe County manager explained that maintenance costs had grown to twice the approximately $8,000 yearly trust fund income.(150) The first steps were taken to form an organization to help the county maintain the cemetery and restore it to its former status as the "most beautiful God's acre in New Mexico."
In September 1981, the County Commission voted unanimously to return the cemetery to Woman's Club on the basis of two violations of state law in the 1978 transfer found by the county land-use attorney.(151) The Woman's Club refused to have it back. Apprehension increased when a local developer proposed taking over the cemetery if he could secure additional land. The stalemate lasted more than a year.
The cemetery preservation group delayed formal organization until the ownership question was resolved. Founder and pro-tem president Marian Meyer assembled copies of cemetery records, developed a list of potential members, raised a preservation fund of $4,000, and initiated an annual spring cleanup.
Finally, the county commissioners agreed to retain ownership if the trust fund was turned over to the county. The Fairview Cemetery Preservation Association (FCPA) was formally organized as a nonprofit corporation with Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws prepared by attorney Thomas B. Catron III, whose grandfather had built Fairview's most impressive mausoleum. The three incorporators were Marian Meyer, Bradley M. Thomas, Jr. (1931-2003), and Justine D. Thomas (1922-1997, no relation Bradley Thomas). Bradley Thomas, also the most recent past-president of the FCPA, was the grandson of Esther Bradley Thomas. The stated purpose of the organization was to assist the county in the preservation, improvement, and maintenance of Fairview as a historic place and to secure contributions for that purpose.
For the next eighteen years, the FCPA did just that. The county continued to pay the water bill (by far the largest expense), shared some of the other major expenditures with the association, and maintained the caretaker's house. The association raised funds, organized volunteers, and supervised the work of the caretaker. At first the county and the association shared the salary of the caretaker. In 1987 the caretaker became a fulltime county employee and the association took over the cost of maintenance (such as tree removal, trimming, fertilizing and spraying), lawn care and sod replacement, and all other general expenses.
Among the first projects organized by the association was the removal of dead trees. A memorial tree program was established to provide new trees as well as an adopt-a-tree program to care for them during their most vulnerable early years. Memorial trees were marked with small cement cylinders sunk into the ground at the edge of the tree bowl. The markers were actually core samples donated by the State Highway Department, engraved with the name of the donor and for whom the tree was given.
Since 1978 private burials had been left as piles of dirt. The FCPA gradually leveled and sodded these and took charge of private burials. The group also filled in and sodded sunken graves and straightened badly tilted stones. Marian Meyer continued to research the cemetery, finding descendants and creating a mailing list.
The FCPA began to sell lots again. Meyer determined the location and ownership of unused lots and tracked down descendants throughout the country. Many have donated unused lots back to the association. In cases where descendants were not found, association lawyer Thomas Catron filed quiet title suits. In 1986, the association began a build a second trust fund.
Meyer also initiated an ongoing program to mark the unmarked graves discovered through her research. By ordering directly through a monument company, the FCPA provides flat, gray-granite markers at a near-cost price to families who wish to install them. Many have done so. The retired principal of the New Mexico School for the Deaf raised money to place headstones on unmarked graves of deaf persons involved with the school. The class of 1986 provided a headstone for the school's first student, the deaf orphan Maud Bogue. The Santa Fe Chapter of the DAR took an interest in caring for the oldest sections of the cemetery and in 1988 contributed a small, pink-granite stone to mark the grave of Selina Craft Arny.
The one hundredth anniversary of Fairview was commemorated on May 26, 1984. Centennial chair Marian Meyer organized the celebration as a community event jointly sponsored by the FCPA and the now defunct Santa Fe Historical Society, of which Meyer had been president. The Santa Fe Garden Club planted massed petunias in flowerbeds near the entrance. The Historic Santa Fe Foundation voted to list the Fairview in its Registry of Properties Worthy of Preservation and the Santa Fe Woman's Club donated the cost of the foundation's shield-shaped plaque. The Santa Fe Historical Society sponsored a second plaque giving a brief history of Fairview researched by Meyer.
Descendants of pioneer families and Santa Fe old-timers were guests of honor at the ceremony. The two plaques were unveiled on a cement standard designed by Burton G. Dwyre (1901-1992), former State Highway Department chief, and constructed with donated labor and materials. Meyer spoke movingly on "Five Women of Fairview." Placards with photographs and biographical sketches were posted at the burial sites of many important figures, as well as those of 'simple pioneers.' In conjunction with the celebration, Meyer published a series of articles in the Santa Fe Reporter on pioneer women buried at Fairview. Three years later, Marian Meyer received the New Mexico Historical Society's Ralph Emerson Twitchell Award for "her unique work in the documentation and preservation of Santa Fe's pioneer Fairview Cemetery."
In June 1988 Fairview suffered its worst single episode of wanton destruction when vandals toppled sixty-seven headstones, breaking some. The association went to work repairing and reinstalling them, using donated power equipment, volunteer labor, extra manpower from the county, and advice from private businesses. Most importantly, Roger Lamoreux used his huge crane to right the heaviest stones.
Members of the FCPA raised funds to purchase equipment, such as mowers and other tools. Like their predecessors in the WBT and Woman's Club, they solicited donations from local businesses for needed materials and negotiated reductions in labor costs. Through these efforts a local tree service donated much of the cost of tree spraying. Association volunteers trained to take over rodent control. Over a period of sixteen years, with numerous donations large and small, the association installed six sprinkler systems to cover the entire cemetery at costs ranging from five to sixteen thousand dollars each and subsequently added timers. With the sprinkler system completed, a fund-raising campaign was launched to restore the wrought-iron fence and secure a new main gate. This project was completed in 1997 at a cost of $35,000.
That year Santa Fe County asked the FCPA to assume ownership of the cemetery, and the group did so in July 1998. A headstone inventory prepared by Marian Meyer and members of the New Mexico Genealogical (NMGS) Society was published by the NMGS in 1998. The FCPA installed an information shelter near the main gate designed by Santa Fe architect Beverley Spears, FAIA, who specializes in historic preservation. The Santa Fe Historical Society was being dissolved at this time and the organization's treasury was donated to the FCPA for this purpose. Installed in 1998, the shelter holds the section maps recently completed by the former caretaker and an alphabetical index of all those buried at Fairview.
Fairview Cemetery continues today under the stewardship of the Fairview Cemetery Preservation Association, which continues to manage finances, care for the property, and oversee burials. The association newsletter is sent to almost five hundred Fairview supporters in over thirty states. In the words of Robert Lawrence, an association past president and descendant by marriage of W. L. Slaughter, the organization maintains Fairview as a "historical memorial to our ancestors for our descendants."
To visit Fairview is to stroll through New Mexico's territorial and early statehood history. Santa Fe's pioneer cemetery is a major resource for historians and genealogists researching these periods. It represents and illustrates the immigration to the New Mexico frontier that followed the U.S. assumption of control of the region from Mexico. Primarily non-Hispanics of European origin, these people came to New Mexico in successive waves after the U.S. Mexican War, the Civil War, the coming of the railroad, and the granting of statehood. Seeking economic opportunity and, in many instances, health, they made major contributions to the history of the territory and its capital city.
As a major project of the Woman's Board of Trade and Library Association, Fairview also represents the contribution of women to the civic development of territorial and early statehood Santa Fe. Most of the women in the early WBT were also wives and mothers with a full life of traditional responsibilities, which were not trivial on the nineteenth-century frontier. Nevertheless, as volunteers they took total responsibility for major projects. In addition to helping the poor and the lost, they raised all necessary funds to improve and maintain the Santa Fe Plaza and gave the city a public library. Having built a library building, supplied it with books and hired staff, they successfully managed this gift to the community for decades.
In the case of Fairview, they turned a failed enterprise into a community asset, a wasteland into a "veritable park." More broadly, they were a major force in establishing ordinances regulating burial practices. In 1909, following the deaths of four of Santa Fe's women leaders, including WBT stalwarts Cora Bartlett and Ida Rivenburg, it was said, "It is rarely given to a town so small . . . to hold . . . so many women of superb mental equipment, ripe judgment and tireless energy, women who saw the physical, civic and moral needs about them and who courageously undertook a task which seemed almost a hopeless one." And of their contributions: "[They] made waste places of the capital beautiful and . . . by example and hard work awoke the slumbering pride of home in many a breast. . . . making new trails for other feet to broaden and beautify, uplifting the unfortunate, and encouraging the sad hearted."(152)
(6) Presbyterian missionary Matilda Allison claimed that a prayer meeting she held in Santa Fe in 1848 was the first held west of Missouri. Later she headed a Presbyterian mission school in Santa Fe. In 1854 Baptists built the first Protestant church in New Mexico at Santa Fe but left with the outbreak of the Civil War. The Presbyterians purchased the church and remodeled it in 1867. The first Anglican service was held in Santa Fe in 1863 (Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 1-2, 9).
(7) Tobias 151, 197.
(8) Tobias 48.
(9) Santa Fe Weekly Gazette 1 March 1856.
(10) Santa Fe New Mexican 2 January 1864; 1 May 1895; 22 December 1902; 20 September 1960.
(11) Albuquerque Journal 20 October 2000.
(12) Meyer, 'Fairview Cemetery' 5, 7.
(13) Meyer, 'Fairview Cemetery,' 4. Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 5, Fairview Cemetery Records, State Records Center and Archives.
(14) Meyer, 'Fairview Cemetery,' 4. Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 5.
(15) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 7.
(16) The other sellers were Francisco Garcia, husband of Maritana Martin (deceased); Panfilio Martin and his wife Paulita Corrï's; Porfilia Garcia, by her natural guardian, Francisco Garcia; Juanita Martin and her husband Pedro Quintana; and Lorenza, Ygnacia, and Bolentina Martin (all unmarried). Santa Fe County Deeds M:340, 498, 522.
(17) Santa Fe County Deeds M:340.
(18) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 22-3.
(19) Meyer, "Fairview Cemetery," 5-7. Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 22-3. White, William, "Plat of the Cerrillos Road as Straightened from Fairview Cemetery,"1894, Map Collection, State Records Center and Archives.
(20) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 25-6.
(21) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 27-9.
(22) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 30 32, 35. Preston and Facunda Kuhn were at the Vancouver Barracks in Washington State when he sold a right of way to the Santa Fe Central Railway in 1902. In 1916 when they sold the remainder of the Quinto Martin property for $1,000 to the NMSD, Kuhn was in El Paso and Facunda in Washington state. Newhall had been appointed clerk at the new penitentiary in 1885 and went on to a long career in various government positions, such as construction foreman in 1905 for the Zuni River dam. He is buried in the cemetery he founded with many members of his family. Santa Fe New Mexican 13 January 1905. For additional information on Kuhn and Newhall, see Meyer, 'Fairview Cemetery,' 5, 7.
(23) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 39-67.
(24) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 54, 56-7, 65.
(25) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 68-70.
(26) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 82-3.
(27) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 83-4.
(28) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 89.
(29) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 89, 98-100-101.
(30)Santa Fe New Mexican 20 May, 8 August 1903. Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes (1884-1930) 114.
(31) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes (1899-1909) 10 April 1899.
(32) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes (1899-1909) 10, 21 April; 12 June 1899.
(33)Santa Fe New Mexican 28 May 1891. Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes (1899-1909) 21 April; 8, 12 May; 24 September 1899).
(34) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes (1899-1909) 7 May; 8 June; 21 August 1900.
(35) Meyer, "Fairview Site Alive," A-5. WBT Cemetery Committee Minutes (1899-1909) 20 September; 19 October 1900, Fairview Cemetery Collection, State Records Center and Archives.
(36) Santa Fe County Deeds G:81, 313.
(37) Sze, "El Zaguïn," 14-15.
(38) Santa Fe County Deeds Q:128; R-Misc:45; S:450; W:208. The Houghtons belonged to an old and prominent Boston family. Clement Houghton (1863-1949) was an investor and philanthropist. He and his sister provided the funds for the William S. Houghton Memorial Chapel at Wellesley College in honor of their father, a longtime trustee of the college.
(39) Santa Fe County Deeds C-1:483; J-1: 334; R-Misc:82. Santa Fe New Mexican 12 September, 12 November 1901. Meyer, Century of Progress, 96.
(40) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes (1922-1928).
(41) Meyer, "Ellen Palen," 11.
(42) Fairview Cemetery Company Minutes 13 August 1890; 14 April 1891. Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes 7 September 1903; 11 September 1922.
(43) Meyer, "Fairview Cemetery," 14.
(44) Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 1.
(45) Fisher .
(46) Fisher .
(47) "Board of Trade" was the usual name for organizations of leaders (mostly men) dedicated to civic improvement, though not charity. Later "Chamber of Commerce" became the preferred name.
(48) Fisher .
(49) Except as noted details are drawn from WBT records in the Fray Angelico Chavez History Library and the NM State Records Center and Archives, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
(50) Santa Fe New Mexican 17 October 1903.
(51) Undated article in the Woman's Club Archives. Quoted by Honea, 13-14.
(52) Santa Fe New Mexican 14 July 1917; 1 July 1962. Honea 17-8.
(53) There is one mausoleum in Rosario Cemetery.
(54) Fairview Cemetery Record of Internments and Lot Owners. Fairview Cemetery Interment Records. Meyer, et. al.
(55) Sze, "Catron Block," 3-4. Westphall 138-9.
(56) Westphall 135-49. Santa Fe New Mexican19 November 1909.
(57) Westphall 140-45. Hudspeth's Santa Fe City Directory 1927-8, 1944.
(58) Sze, "Catron Block," 1-9.
(59) Fairview Cemetery Interment Records. United States Census 1910.
(60) Santa Fe New Mexican 27 May 1901.
(61) La Farge 264, 274.
(62) Twitchell, Leading Facts vol. 4, 96-7; Old Santa Fe, 476. Keleher 179. Santa Fe New Mexican 7, 10 January 1927; 21 April 1928.
(63) Santa Fe New Mexican 14 July 1917; 30 January 1921; 16 January 1963.
(64) Richard Hanna spent most of his career in Albuquerque. He was a Progressive Republican and later Democratic politician and served on the New Mexico Supreme Court from 1912-1919. He ran unsuccessfully in 1920 for governor and in 1921 for the United States Senate.
(65) Twitchell, Leading Facts vol. 4, 59. Santa Fe County Deeds U-misc: 64.
(66) Twitchell, Leading Facts vol. 5, 258; Old Santa Fe 476-7.
(67) Old Santa Fe 476-7.Santa Fe New Mexican 6 April 1910.
(68) Santa Fe New Mexican 6 April 1910.
(69) Fierman 2, 6. Twitchell, Old Santa Fe, 479.
(70) Twitchell, Old Santa Fe, 479-80. Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 24-5. Fierman 1-23.
(71) Fierman 3-4. Santa Fe New Mexican 12 March 1882.
(72) Twitchell, Old Santa Fe, 479-80.
(73)Santa Fe New Mexican 18 May 1896.
(74) Illustrated History 634. Santa Fe New Mexican 6 January, 29 August 1913. Harvard University Archives.
(75) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes 12 August, 2 September 1901.
(76) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes 4 August 1902, 23 March 1904. Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Yearend Report for 1902. Santa Fe New Mexican "Santa Fe Old and New."
(77) Woman's Board of Trade Cemetery Committee Minutes 25 March 1901.
(78) United States Census 1860. Weekly New Mexican 3 January 1880. Santa Fe New Mexican 4 January 1888; 20 April 1891.
(79) Clara Walter, letter to Santa Fe Woman's Club, Oct. 12, 1931.
(80) Santa Fe Woman's Club Special Board Meeting Minutes, 29 May 1948; Woman's Club Cemetery Committee Report, 11 October 1948, Santa Fe Woman's Club Archives.
(81) As listed on a plaque in the former Santa Fe Public Library building. (82) Santa Fe Woman's Club and Library Association Yearbook, 1985-1986.
(83) Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 13-4.
(84) Santa Fe New Mexican 19 November 1909; 14 June 1927. Meyer, "Ellen Palen," 11.
(85) Meyer, "Ellen Palen," 11.
(86) Meyer, "They Were 'Alone,'13.
(87) Santa Fe New Mexican 5 June 1890. Meyer, "Governor's Lady," 9. The Santa Fe Reporter 1 June 1988. Murphy, passim.
(88) Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 33-5. Honea 1-54.
(89) Lamar 194-6; 198-9.
(90) Santa Fe New Mexican 21 December 1937.
(91) Peterson 234, 235. Raynolds 133-4.
(92) Chavez 6, 7, 30.
(93) Keleher 262.
(94) Keleher 257.
(95) Keleher 262-277.
(96) Keleher 92-3.
(97) Westphall 299.
(98) Abbott practiced in Santa Fe with his son E. C. Abbott whose name without dates appears on a stone in Fairview. E. C. Abbott was buried in Arlington National Cemetery (Santa Fe New Mexican 18 February 1939).
(99) Westphall 208-268.
(100) After serving as New Mexico congressional delegate, Elkins moved to West Virginia in 1877. He served as Secretary of War under President Benjamin Harrison, whose successful campaign he had managed and represented West Virginia in the U. S. Senate.
(101) Twitchell, Leading Facts, vol. 5, 261-2; Old Santa Fe, 468. Mauzy n.p.
(102) Santa Fe Weekly Gazette 17 August 1867; 26 June, 3 July, 21 August 1869. Santa Fe New Mexican 14 August 1903.
(103) Meyer et al. 2.
(104) Santa Fe New Mexican 31 August 1900.
(105) Twitchell, Leading Facts vol. 4, 55-6. Santa Fe New Mexican 10 January 1905. Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 25.
(106) Santa Fe New Mexican 17 October 1927.
(107) Davis vol.1, 811.
(108) Santa Fe New Mexican 1 January 2003. (109) Santa Fe New Mexican 20, 21 August 1903; 7 August 1904. Davis, vol. 1, 811. Reeve 488. Albuquerque Journal 9 October 1993.
(110) Tobias 150.
(111) Rudisill 10, 38, 64.
(112) Santa Fe New Mexican 22 January 1941; 30 July 1962. Meyer, Santa Fe High School 3. Meyer et al. 70.
(113) Meyer, Century of Progress, 1-6, 8-9, 33.
(114) Santa Fe New Mexican 13 July 1901. Sze, "Martyr," 6.
(115) Chauvenet 28.
(116) Historic Santa Fe Foundation 65-6.
(117) Peterson 330.
(118) United States Census, 1920. Santa Fe New Mexican 9 October 1899. Chauvenet 46.
(119) Reeve 13-4.
(120) Reeve 412. Santa Fe New Mexican 14 April 1917.
(121) Santa Fe New Mexican 20 February 1905.
(122) Meyer et al. 14.
(123) Keleher 172. Meyer et al. 14.
(124) Santa Fe New Mexican 8 September 1892; 6 December 1900. Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 9-13.
(125) 21 December 1937. Rudisill 10.
(126) Santa Fe New Mexican 11 May 1903.
(127) The Indian Arts Fund collection was an inspiration to John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in founding the Laboratory of Anthropology in the late 1920s and is now owned primarily by the School of American Research. The Spanish Colonial Arts Society collection forms the nucleus of the Museum of Spanish Colonial Arts, which opened in July 2002 in the building designed by John Gaw Meem as the Laboratory of Anthropology Director's Residence.
(128) Chapman 47-8. Santa Fe New Mexican 7 January 1968.
(129) Labinsky and Hieronymus 45-6. Weideman 12-13.
(130) Santa Fe New Mexican 12 February 1934. Robertson, Gerald Cassidy, 3-11.
(131) Santa Fe New Mexican 9 September 1965.
(132) "Santa Fe Architecture," Old Santa Fe 2 (1915) 278-301.
(133) "New Mexico Architecture," Art and Architecture 7 (1919) 37-49.
(134) Robertson and Nestor 24-7. Rudisill 59. Historic Santa Fe Foundation 117-8.
(135) Weideman 12-13.
(136) Sze, "Edwin Brooks," 5-6, 9-11.
(137) Meyer, Santa Fe's Fifteen Club, 40-1. Santa Fe New Mexican 7 August 1930; 26 August 1963.
(138) El Palacio 27.19-20 (9-16 November 1929) 211-5.
(139) The Laughlin home was demolished to build the former New Mexico State Library, now a state office building.
(140) Santa Fe New Mexican 30 July 1962. Weigle 207.
(141) Gere 40-3. Santa Fe Scene 8 August 1959. Reeve 216.
(142) Pratt 97-9, 101-2. Sze, "New Mexico's Supreme Court," 7.
(143) Pratt 58-60.
(144) Kidder 271.
(145) El Palacio 14.1 (1 July 1925) 83-87. Twitchell, Leading Facts vol. 5, 158-9.
(146) El Palacio 53.3 (March 1946) 73-4.
(147) Chauvenet 30, 32, 48, 65.
(148) This history is derived primarily from the Fairview Cemetery Preservation Association Newsletter, articles in the Santa Fe New Mexican and the Albuquerque Journal North, and personal communication with Marian Meyer.
(149) Meyer, "Fairview Cemetery," 14; "When Fairview," 15.
(150) Santa Fe New Mexican 31 August 1981.
(151) The State Board of Finance had not formally approved the transfer and a private bank retained control of the trust fund rather than the county.
(152) Santa Fe New Mexican 19 November 1909; 14 July 1917.
Essay taken from "Fairview Cemetary, Santa Fe, NM", September 2004.
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