Picuris Pueblo, or Pikuria (meaning those who paint), as it was named by Spanish Juan de Oñate, was once one of the largest Pueblos. However, their population has declined, making it currently one of the smaller Pueblos with a population around 300. Picuris participated in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680
and then fought the Spaniards again upon their return in 1692
. It is this fighting that most likely lead to such a large drop in population. When the Picuris people returned to their pueblo in 1706 they fought alongside the Spanish against the Apaches and Comanches.
In the past few years, tribal members have restored the 200-year-old San Lorenzo de Picuris Church, located in the center of the pueblo.